The foot and ankle are comprised of 28 individual bones.
- 7 Tarsals
- Calcaneus (the heel bone); which is the larges
- Talus (ankle joint)
- Navicular (this has poor circulation so is the most often fractured)
- 3 Cuneiform
- 5 Metarsals (These are referred to as rays)
- 14 Phalanges (these are the bones in the toes)
- (2) Tibia and Fibula of the shin that help form the ankle joint.
Distal, middle, and proximal phalanges in each (except great toe) Metatarsals Metatarsophalangeal joint in between.
Ligaments on the outside of the Ankle
The major ligaments in the ankle that are most commonly sprained are located on the outside of the ankle. These are sprained with “inversion sprains”.
- Anterior Talofibular Ligament
- Calcaneofibular Ligament
- Posterior Talofibular Ligament
Ligaments on the inside of the ankle. This is sprained with “eversion sprains”
The nerves of the foot and ankle originate at the back and travel down the leg.
Bursa are fluid filled sacs that lie between tissues or tissues and bones preventing friction. They can become injured from being contused (hit, from falling) or from the increased pressure placed upon them by tight calf muscles.